The human papilloma virus

The human papilloma virus (HPV) — the most common is a viral infection of the reproductive tract.

General information

HPV is a group of virus that is extremely widespread all over the world. There are more than 190 types of the virus, of whom at least 13 have lead to the development of the cancer (these are known as high-risk types). The human papilloma virus, is mainly transmitted when, sexual contact, and most of the people get them soon after they are starting their sexual lives. The two types of HPV (16 and 18) call for 70% of all cases of cancer of the cervix (cervical Cancer), and in pathological conditions of pre-cancer of the cervix of the uterus (womb).

The chances of getting sick

the causative agent of human papillomavirus

The human papilloma virus, is mainly transmitted when, sexual contact, and most of the people get them soon after they are starting their sexual lives. But, for the transmission of the virus, it will not be necessary in penetrating sex. The Nude in genital contact is a well-established, by the transmission of the human papilloma virus infection. At-risk groups for HPV infection are young children and teenagers, from 15 to 18 years of age or older.

Cancer of the cervix of the uterus, in consequence, acquired a sexually the infection by certain types of HPV. Risk factors for the development of Cancer of the cervix of the uterus. the first sexual intercourse at an early age; multiple sex partners; and the removal of the immunity (for example, people who are infected with HIV are at a higher risk of HPV infection and are infected the most in a wide range of different types of HPV.

The symptoms and the nature of the progression of the disease

The majority of HPV infections do not lead to the onset of the symptoms or the disease, and then disappear (about 90% occur by 2 years of age). However, it is resistant to infection by certain HPV types (most often types 16 and 18) can lead to the development of tumors, and pre-pathological conditions. Without treatment, they can develop into cancer of the cervix of the uterus (womb). Today, cervical cancer is the most common form of the disease is related to the human papilloma virus. Cancer of the cervix of the uterus, is the fourth among the most common types of cancer in women and the seventh overall: an estimated 528 000 new cases worldwide in 2012.

The symptoms of Cancer of the cervix of the uterus, usually appear only in advanced stages of cancer, and may include any of the following:

  • Irregular, intermenstrual (in between months), or disease of the vaginal bleeding after sexual intercourse;
  • The pain in my back, leg, or pelvis;
  • Fatigue, weight loss, loss of appetite;
  • Unpleasant feeling in the vagina, or the allocation of an unpleasant odor;
  • With a swollen foot.

In the later stages, you may experience more severe symptoms.

The human papilloma virus infection, is also involved in the 20-90% of all cases of squamous cell carcinoma of the anus, in the cavity of the mouth, the vulva, the vagina and the penis. It is estimated that up to 90% of cases of anal cancer are caused by HPV-16 and HPV-18, and 40% of all cases of cancer of the vulva, which occurs primarily in older women are associated with HPV-16.

Infection with HPV, some types of low-risk, cause them to get rid of genital warts in both men and women (condilomas acuminados, or venereal warts). The average amount of time between the infection with HPV types 6 or 11, and in the development of sexually transmitted diseases warts is between 11 and 12 months in males and 5-and 6-months, in women younger than 16. Anogenital condilomas are difficult to deal with.

HPV-6 and HPV-11 can cause a rare condition known as recurrent respiratory papillomatosis (PRR), which is the cells that are formed in the larynx or in other parts of the respiratory tract. FOLLOWED by occurs mostly in children under 5 years of age (juvenile PRR) or, in subjects in the third decade of life (without PRR). In rare cases, women with HPV genital infection, they can transmit the virus to her baby during childbirth. Non-treated, FOLLOWED by it can cause a serious problem because of the obstruction of the airway.

Complications after suffering from an illness

He discovered that cervical Cancer in 100% of cases, it is driven by the oncogenic types of the human papilloma virus (HPV). In women with normal immune system with cancer of the cervix of the uterus for 15 to 20 years of age. Women with a weakened immune system, for example, the risk of HIV infection in the absence of the treatment, its development may take 5 to 10 years of age. Although limited data are available on the get rid of types of cancer in addition to cancer of the cervix of the uterus, and a growing number of real-world data that shows the relationship of the human papilloma virus to cancer of the anus, vulva, vagina, and penis. And, although this type of cancer is less common than Cancer of the cervix of the uterus, its relationship with HPV, it becomes capable of prevention by the use of such strategies in prevention of drug abuse, as well as for the cervical cancer of the uterus (womb).

The types of HPV do not cause cancer (especially types 6 and 11 can cause condilomas acuminados, and respiratory papillomatosis (a disease in which tumours grow in the air passages leading from the nose and mouth to the lungs). And, even though these very seldom lead to death, which can often lead to illness. Condilomas acuminados are widely distributed and are extremely contagious.

The rate of mortality

We found a high overall mortality rates for cancer of the cervix (52%), the cause of which is the human papilloma virus. In 2012, approximately 270 000 women died from cervical Cancer, accounting for more than 85% of these deaths occurred in low-and middle-income countries.

Treatment

In the examination of cervical Cancer is to test a pre-cancer and cancer among women who have no symptoms and feel perfectly healthy. If the screening identifies a pre-disease state, they can be easily handled, and, thus, prevent the development of cancer. The selection will also be able to detect the cancer at an early stage with a high likelihood of cure.

Whereas, the state of the pre-developed over the course of several years, and every female under the age of 30 and 49 years old, is it advisable to be tested at least once in your life, and the best part – more and more frequently. The selection process is effective in reducing the mortality from cancer of the cervix of the uterus, only in the case of the participation of a significant number of women.

Currently, there are 3 different types of screening:

  • Normal and the Pap test (or Pap) and liquid cytology (LBC);
  • Visual inspection using acetic acid);
  • The test for types of HPV that are high risk.

In developed countries, there are programmes that give women a pass to the screening, which enables us to identify the majority of the pre-cancerous state is in the early stages, when it can be easily dealt with. Early treatment of the human papilloma virus enables you to avoid up to 80% of the cases, in the development of cervical Cancer in these countries.

In developing countries, limited access to screening, effective means that the disease is often detected only at later stages, when they develop symptoms. In addition, the treatment of the disease is in these later stages, it turns out to be inefficient, leading to high levels of mortality from cervical Cancer in these countries.

The effectiveness of the vaccination

The results of clinical trials indicate that, in the present, the two vaccines that are safe and very effective in preventing infection by HPV 16 and 18 years old. Both of these vaccines, more effective, and vaccination is the exposure to the human papilloma virus. Therefore, it is preferable to carry out the vaccination before their first sexual contact. The vaccine is not a cure for the infection, HPV-related or HPV disease (like cancer).

In some of the countries have introduced vaccination of boys against human papilloma virus, considering the fact that it helps prevent genital cancers in both men and women, and it's one of the vaccines that are available will also help to prevent the development of genital warts in both men and women. In addition, the vaccination of children is to prevent the circulation of HPV in the population of adolescents and young adults. The WHO recommends the vaccination for girls 9 to 13 years of age, as this is the most cost-effective measure for public health against cancer of the cervix of the uterus (womb).

The HPV vaccination does not replace screening for cancer of the cervix of the uterus (womb). In countries where the HPV vaccine is put into action, it may also be a need for the development of screening programmes. By the end of 2013, the vaccine against the human papilloma virus has been placed in the 55 countries of the world health organization.

The modern mathematical models show that, when the cover of girls of 12 or 13 years to complete a course of primary immunisation (3 doses) of the vaccine against the human papilloma virus infection, it can be expected to reduce the risk of developing cancer of the cervix in 63% of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia of the third-degree of severity (pre-cancer) – 51%, cytological irregularities, in groups of up to 30 years, with 27%.

The vaccine

There are currently two vaccines that protect against the 16 and 18 types of human papilloma viruses causing, at least 70% of the cervical cancer of the uterus (womb). This vaccine may also provide some cross-protection against other less common HPV types which cause cervical Cancer of the uterus (womb). One of these vaccines also protects against HPV types 6 and 11, which cause anogenital acuminata.

The development and registration of new vaccines against the human papilloma virus infection were identified, the possibility of primary prevention of Cancer of the cervix of the uterus (womb).

The recent epidemic of

Cancer of the cervix of the uterus, is the second in the prevalence of cancer among women, and it is estimated that, annually, it is registered with 530 000 new cases of the disease, about 270 000 of these patients die.

The incidence trend of economic growth.

The probability of a disease, a Cancer of the cervix of the uterus of each woman, on average, during the life-time is 0.53%.

Historical information and fun facts

In the middle of the decade of the seventies of the twentieth century, a scientist called Harold zur Hausen, who discovered that the women who are suffering from cancer of the neck of the womb, without exception, are infected with the human papilloma virus. In 1983, he found a DNA virus from the papillomavirus in biopsies of cervical cancer of the uterus, and this is an event that can be considered as the opening of the oncogenic virus HPV-16. In 2008, for the Nobel committee has awarded the Nobel prize in physiology or medicine to Harald zur Hausen for the discovery of the virus, hpv can cause cancer of the cervix of the uterus (womb).